Fréchet ChemNet Distance: A Metric for Generative Models for Molecules in Drug Discovery
Sprache des Titels:
Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2018)
increased the interest in deep learning driven de novo drug design. However, assessing the performance of such generative models is notoriously difficult. Metrics that are typically used to assess the performance of such generative models are the percentage of chemically valid molecules or the similarity to real molecules in terms of particular descriptors, such as the partition coefficient (logP) or druglikeness. However, method comparison is difficult because of the inconsistent use of evaluation metrics, the necessity for multiple metrics, and the fact that some of these measures can easily be tricked by simple rule-based systems. We propose a novel distance measure between two sets of molecules, called Fréchet ChemNet distance (FCD), that can be used as an evaluation metric for generative models. The FCD is similar to a recently established performance metric for comparing image generation methods, the Fréchet Inception Distance (FID). Whereas the FID uses one of the hidden layers of InceptionNet, the FCD utilizes the penultimate layer of a deep neural network called ChemNet, which was trained to predict drug activities. Thus, the FCD metric takes into account chemically and biologically relevant information about molecules, and also measures the diversity of the set via the distribution of generated molecules. The FCD's advantage over previous metrics is that it can detect if generated molecules are a) diverse and have similar b) chemical and c) biological properties as real molecules. We further provide an easy-to-use implementation that only requires the SMILES representation of the generated molecules as input to calculate the FCD.