Identity by descent between humans, Denisovans, and Neandertals
Sprache des Titels:
ASHG 2014 Proceedings
We analyze the sharing of very short identity by descent (IBD) segments between humans, Neandertals, and Denisovans to gain new insights into their demographic history. Short IBD segments convey information about events far back in time because the shorter IBD segments are, the older they are assumed to be. The identification of short IBD segments becomes possible through next generation sequencing (NGS), which offers high variant density and reports variants of all frequencies. Only recently HapFABIA has been proposed as the first method for detecting very short IBD segments in NGS data. HapFABIA utilizes rare variants to identify IBD segments with a low false discovery rate. We applied HapFABIA to the 1000 Genomes Project whole genome sequencing data to identify IBD segments which are shared within and between populations. Some IBD segments are shared with the reconstructed ancestral genome of humans and other primates. These segments are tagged by rare variants, consequently some rare variants have to be very old. Other IBD segments are also old since they are shared with Neandertals or Denisovans, which explains their shorter lengths. The Denisova genome most prominently matched IBD segments that are shared by Asians. Many of these segments were found exclusively in Asians and they are longer than segments shared between other continental populations and the Denisova genome. Therefore, we could confirm an introgression from Deniosvans into ancestors of Asians after their migration out of Africa. While Neandertal-matching IBD segments are most often shared by Asians, Europeans share more than other populations, too.