Karin Fischer`s contribution was on the tension between targeting and universal social policies. She emphasizes that a poliarizing view is neither helpful nor empiricially sound. Drawing on the case studies on South Africa, Brazil and India, she emphazises that we face a parallel trend - targeted measures are often accompanied by more universal social policies, e.g. in the field of public health care. Thus, we have to analyze the entire social system, i.e. the nature of the programs and the relationship between targeting and universalizing social reform (who is included, who is excluded?). The nature of a program - wether targeted or universal - is also key for distributional coalitions. Distributional coalitions are a requirement for redistribution.