Retinal Organoids and Retinal Prostheses: An Overview.
Sprache des Titels:
Despite the progress of modern medicine in the last decades, millions of people diagnosed with retinal dystrophies (RDs), such as retinitis pigmentosa, or age-related diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, are suffering from severe visual impairment or even legal blindness. On the one hand, the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the progress of three-dimensional (3D) retinal organoids (ROs) technology provide a great opportunity to study, understand, and even treat retinal diseases. On the other hand, research advances in the field of electronic retinal prosthesis using inorganic photovoltaic polymers and the emergence of organic semiconductors represent an encouraging therapeutical strategy to restore vision to patients at the late onset of the disease. This review will provide an overview of the latest advancement in both fields. We first describe the retina and the photoreceptors, briefly mention the most used RD animal models, then focus on the latest RO differentiation protocols, carry out an overview of the current technology on inorganic and organic retinal prostheses to restore vision, and finally summarize the potential utility and applications of ROs.