Output regulation for general heterodirectional linear hyperbolic PDEs coupled with nonlinear ODEs
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This paper considers general heterodirectional linear hyperbolic PDEs with boundary actuation and collocated measurement, that are bidirectionally coupled with nonlinear ODEs at the unactuated boundary. An output feedback regulator is designed to have the control output track a reference in the presence of disturbances, with a nonlinear signal model generating the reference and the disturbances. This leads to new challenges for both the observer and controller design. The regulator design makes use of results from output regulation theory for nonlinear lumped-parameter and distributed-parameter systems. The derivation of the state feedback regulator requires solving a new type of regulator equations, which consist of a Cauchy problem for linear and semilinear hyperbolic PDEs. A key component of the novel observer design is a nonlinear retarded observer for a finite-dimensional subsystem. Both the controller and the observer design are systematic in nature and derived in several successive steps, that include backstepping transformations and, most notably, predictions of PDE and ODE states. The latter are shown to be the unique solution of general nonlinear Volterra integro-differential equations. Combining the observer with the state feedback regulator is proven to achieve output regulation for the closed-loop system. A numerical example illustrates and confirms the theoretical results.