"Towards a Mobile Office: User Interfaces For Safety and Productivity in Conditionally Automated Vehicles"
Towards a Mobile Office: User Interfaces For Safety and Productivity in Conditionally Automated Vehicles
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The widespread implementation of mobile personal computing devices like notebooks and smartphones has changed knowledge work towards more mobility beyond the traditional office desk. Rising levels of driving automation on the road may initiate a similar shift. By changing the driver?s role to that of the driver-passenger, the demand for so-called Non-Driving Related Tasks (NDRTs) grows. For example, commuters could use their time on the road to prepare for the upcoming office day, or truck drivers could do logistics planning between on- and offloading. However, driver-passengers still have the responsibility to stay ready to respond to Take-Over Requests (TORs). They occur when a not-yet fully automated vehicle experiences a system failure or functional limitation.
Accordingly, in this thesis, we investigate the concept of a mobile office in a Conditionally Automated Driving (SAE L3) vehicle. Its goals are to enable productive NDRT engagement during automated driving phases but also safe manual driving after TORs. Therefore, user interfaces that face these challenges for the typical office tasks of text entry and comprehension in SAE L3 vehicles are developed and evaluated. They account for both office work and TOR/driving ergonomics issues based on the user-centered design process. The designs are informed by standards, applied Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research literature, and cognitive resource and multitasking theories. Mixed-methods user studies with medium- to high-fidelity prototypes allowed quantitatively and qualitatively assessing the interfaces and their features regarding users? objective and subjective performance with them and physiological responses to them. Thereby, we inferred generalizable results on the design features, underlying theories, and the methods used to design and evaluate them. We found that merging knowledge from various areas of HCI can promote safety and productivity of office work in SAE L3 vehicles to some extent when iteratively improving interface designs. Furthermore, the mixed-methods evaluations revealed detailed aspects of applying prevalent HCI theory and applied research findings in a novel and complex domain. Overall, we report findings on various mobile office interface modalities and combinations concerning their impact on ergonomics factors such as performance, workload, situational awareness, and well-being. Additionally, we detail the methodological approach taken, including the infrastructure required to implement it.