Advances in methods to obtain and characterise room temperature magnetic ZnO
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We report the existence of magnetic order at room temperature in Li-doped ZnO microwires after low energy H+ implantation. The microwires with diameters between 0.3 and 10 mu m were prepared by a carbothermal process. We combine spectroscopy techniques to elucidate the influence of the electronic structure and local environment of Zn, O, and Li and their vacancies on the magnetic response. Ferromagnetism at room temperature is obtained only after implanting H+ in Li-doped ZnO. The overall results indicate that low-energy proton implantation is an effective method to produce the necessary amount of stable Zn vacancies near the Li ions to trigger the magnetic order. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.