More Than Just Simple Interaction between STIM and Orai Proteins: CRAC Channel Function Enabled by a Network of Interactions with Regulatory Proteins
Sprache des Titels:
The calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel, activated by the release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is critical for Ca2+ homeostasis and active signal transduction in a plethora of cell types. Spurred by the long-sought decryption of the molecular nature of the CRAC channel, considerable scientific effort has been devoted to gaining insights into functional and structural mechanisms underlying this signalling cascade. Key players in CRAC channel function are the Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and Orai1. STIM1 proteins span through the membrane of the ER, are competent in sensing luminal Ca2+ concentration, and in turn, are responsible for relaying the signal of Ca2+ store-depletion to pore-forming Orai1 proteins in the plasma membrane. A direct interaction of STIM1 and Orai1 allows for the re-entry of Ca2+ from the extracellular space. Although much is already known about the structure, function, and interaction of STIM1 and Orai1, there is growing evidence that CRAC under physiological conditions is dependent on additional proteins to function properly. Several auxiliary proteins have been shown to regulate CRAC channel activity by means of direct interactions with STIM1 and/or Orai1, promoting or hindering Ca2+ influx in a mechanistically diverse manner. Various proteins have also been identified to exert a modulatory role on the CRAC signalling cascade although inherently lacking an affinity for both STIM1 and Orai1. Apart from ubiquitously expressed representatives, a subset of such regulatory mechanisms seems to allow for a cell-type-specific control of CRAC channel function, considering the rather restricted expression patterns of the specific proteins. Given the high functional and clinical relevance of both generic and cell-type-specific interacting networks, the following review shall provide a comprehensive summary of regulators of the multilayered CRAC channel signalling cascade. It also includes proteins expressed in a narrow spectrum of cells and tissues that are often disregarded in other reviews of similar topics.