Prospective Sensemaking during Planned Change Interventions: A Comparison of Two Hospital Units.
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Changing organizations is difficult. In this article, we analyze how sensemaking that follows the initiation of change projects relies on the interplay of prospective and retrospective aspects, and we elucidate how organization members? frames develop over time based on this interplay. Our data, 38 in-depth interviews with nursing and medical staff held at four different points in time, reveal how expectations impact the dynamics of meaning construction in change processes. Our findings demonstrate that the frames through which actors make sense of change initiatives develop continuously, although the expectations embedded in them are ?sticky? to some extent. The degree of ?stickiness? depends on expectations that are formed through initial prospective sensemaking, as these expectations influence actors? tolerance regarding dissonant cues. Change initiatives fail when this tolerance becomes exhausted. Our study contributes to theory on sensemaking and change by elaborating on the undertheorized role of prospective sensemaking during change processes.