Tutorial: Basic principles, limits of detection, and pitfalls of highly sensitive SQUID magnetometry for nanomagnetism and spintronics
Sprache des Titels:
In the field of nanomagnetism and spintronics, integral magnetometry is nowadays challenged by samples with low magnetic moments and/or low coercive fields. Commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers are versatile experimental tools to magnetically characterize samples with ultimate sensitivity as well as with a high degree of automation. For realistic experimental conditions, the as-recorded magnetic signal contains several artifacts, especially if small signals are measured on top of a large magnetic background or low magnetic fields are required. In this Tutorial, we will briefly review the basic principles of magnetometry and present a representative discussion of artifacts which can occur in studying samples like soft magnetic materials as well as low moment samples. It turns out that special attention is needed to quantify and correct the residual fields of the superconducting magnet to derive useful information from integral magnetometry while pushing the limits of detection and to avoid erroneous conclusions.