Imaging and force spectroscopy on desmoglein 1 using atomic force microscopy reveal multivalent Ca(2+)-dependent, low-affinity trans-interaction
Sprache des Titels:
Desmoglein 1 is a desmosomal member of the cadherin family expressed in stratified epithelia. Desmoglein 1 is the target adhesion molecule of severe blistering skin diseases such as pemphigus or bullous impetigo. However, despite this enormous pathological relevance, the molecular binding properties of desmoglein 1 are largely unknown. Using atomic force microscopic imaging, we found that desmoglein 1 molecules displayed Ca(2+)-dependent conformational changes of the extracellular domains. By single-molecule force-distance cycles, we provide evidence that desmoglein 1 undergoes Ca(2+)-dependent (K (d) = 0.8 mM Ca(2+)) homophilic trans-interaction, which is highly relevant for the contribution of desmoglein 1 homophilic binding to keratinocyte cohesion in distinct epidermal layers. Moreover, while the single-unit unbinding force is comparable to other cadherins (approximately 40 pN at retrace velocity of 300 nm/s), apparent differences with respect to multivalency of interaction and lifetime of single bonds (0.17 s) were observed. Thus, besides the biophysical characterization of desmoglein 1, a main outcome of the study is that desmoglein 1 differs from other members of the cadherin family in terms of some molecular binding properties.