Automatic Alignment of Music Performances with Structural Differences
Sprache des Titels:
Proceedings of the 14th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR 2013
Both in interactive music listening, and in music performance
research, there is a need for automatic alignment of
different recordings of the same musical piece. This task
is challenging, because musical pieces often contain parts
that may or may not be repeated by the performer, possibly
leading to structural differences between performances
(or between performance and score). The most common
alignment method, dynamic time warping (DTW), cannot
handle structural differences adequately, and existing approaches
to deal with structural differences explicitly rely
on the annotation of ?break points? in one of the sequences.
We propose a simple extension of the Needleman-Wunsch
algorithm to deal effectively with structural differences,
without relying on annotations. We evaluate several audio
features for alignment, and show how an optimal value
can be found for the cost-parameter of the alignment algorithm.
A single cost value is demonstrated to be valid
across different types of music. We demonstrate that our
approach yields roughly equal alignment accuracies compared
to DTW in the absence of structural differences, and
superior accuracies when structural differences occur.