Electrical properties of pSi/[6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester/Al hybrid heterojunctions: Experimental and theoretical evaluation of diode operation
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In this work, we analyze electrically the Al/p-Si/[6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester/Al hybrid heterojunction. The barrier height at the p-Si/PCBM interface corresponding to the difference between Si valence band edge and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level of PCBM is studied with current-voltage (J-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) methods and determined to be ? 0.55?eV. This value is in agreement with the onset energy of spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements presented in a previous publication [Matt et al., Adv. Mater. 22, 647 (2010)]. For the J-V characteristics, a thorough model based on an interface generation-recombination current is proposed. All relevant energy levels for this model are obtained experimentally. As origin of the large reverse current, the thermal generation of charge carriers throughout the Si depletion region is identified by the thermal activation measurements.