Maarten Grachten, Gerhard Widmer,
"Explaining Expressive Dynamics As a Mixture of Basis Functions."
: Proceedings of the Eighth Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC 2011), Padua, Italy., 2011
Explaining Expressive Dynamics As a Mixture of Basis Functions.
Sprache des Titels:
Proceedings of the Eighth Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC 2011), Padua, Italy.
The quest for understanding how pianists interpret notated
music to turn it into a lively musical experience, has led
to numerous models of musical expression. One of the
major dimensions of musical expression is loudness. Several
models exist that explain loudness variations over the
course of a performance, in terms of for example phrase
structure, or musical accent. Often however, especially in
piano music from the romantic period, performance directives
are written explicitly in the score to guide performers.
It is to be expected that such directives can explain a large
part of the loudness variations. In this paper, we present
a method to model the influence of notated loudness directives
on loudness in piano performances, based on least
squares fitting of a set of basis functions. We demonstrate
that the linear basis model approach is general enough to
allow for incorporating arbitrary musical features. In particular,
we show that by including notated pitch in addition
to loudness directives, the model also accounts for loudness
effects in relation to voice-leading.