Maarten Grachten, Gerhard Widmer,
"A Method to Determine the Contribution of Annotated Performance Directives in Music Performances."
: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (ISPS 2011), Toronto, Canada., 2011
A Method to Determine the Contribution of Annotated Performance Directives in Music Performances.
Sprache des Titels:
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (ISPS 2011), Toronto, Canada.
Interpreting notated music and performing it expressively is a complex
skill that requires years of practice. In the quest for understanding this
phenomenon, a question that arises naturally is to what degree performance
directives annotated in the score affect expressive variations of
tempo and loudness. Computational models of musical expression typically
focus on musical structure and do not explicitly take into account
annotated performance directives. The objective of the method presented
here is to determine the degree to which loudness directives can account
for expressive variations in loudness as measured from performances. To
this end, we represent loudness directives by mathematical functions and
use these to approximate measured loudness curves. This approximation
yields coefficient values that represent how strongly each directive is reflected
in the performance. Furthermore, the residual loudness curve after
subtracting the model fit provides a clearer view on other, nonexplicit
factors that influence expressive loudness variations.