Werner Goebl, C. Palmer,
"Synchronization of Timing and Motion Among Performing Musicians."
, in Music Perception, Vol. 26, Nummer 5, Seite(n) 427-438, 2009
Synchronization of Timing and Motion Among Performing Musicians.
Sprache des Titels:
WE INVESTIGATED INFLUENCES OF AUDITORY FEEDBACK,
musical role, and note ratio on synchronization in
ensemble performance. Pianists performed duets on a
piano keyboard; the pianist playing the upper part was
designated the leader and the other pianist was the follower.
They received full auditory feedback, one-way
feedback (leaders heard themselves while followers
heard both parts), or self-feedback only. The upper part
contained more, fewer, or equal numbers of notes relative
to the lower part. Temporal asynchronies increased
as auditory feedback decreased: The pianist playing
more notes preceded the other pianist, and this tendency
increased with reduced feedback. Interonset timing
suggested bidirectional adjustments during full feedback
despite the leader/follower instruction, and unidirectional
adjustment only during reduced feedback.
Motion analyses indicated that leaders raised fingers
higher and pianists’ head movements became more
synchronized as auditory feedback was reduced. These
findings suggest that visual cues became more important
when auditory information was absent.